Combined vascular malformations

Combined vascular malformations consist of at least two or more malformed vessel types. These are basically combinations of malformed capillary, arterial, venous and/or lymphatic components. In addition to a combination of a cutaneous capillary malformation with an arteriovenous malformation, i.e., a capillary-arteriovenous malformation, manifestations of a combined vascular malformation with non-vascular anomalies are also possible, usually a circumscribed overgrowth or more rarely undergrowth of a body area. These manifestations are then known as “vascular malformations associated with other anomalies”. Based on the ISSVA classification, the following table provides an overview of the classification of combined vascular malformations.

Common combined vascular malformations

AbbrevationDifferent vessel types
CM + VMCapillary-venous malformation
CM + LMCapillary-lymphatic malformation
CM + AVMCapillary-arteriovenous malformation
LM + VMLymphatic-venous malformation
CM + LM + VMCapillary-lymphatic-venous malformation
CM + LM + AVMCapillary-lymphatic-arteriovenous malformation
CM + VM + AVMCapillary-venous-arteriovenous malformation
CM + LM + VM + AVMCapillary-lymphatic-venous-arteriovenous malformation