Combination therapy

Ultimately, in many situations it may be useful and necessary to combine radiological interventional procedures with surgical procedures. This always requires close coordination between the various disciplines. For example, a possible scenario would be to perform catheter-assisted embolization prior to resection of an arteriovenous malformation in order to minimize the risk of intraoperative bleeding that could barely be stopped and to enable surgical preparation in the first place. Multiple sclerosing procedures for venous or lymphatic malformations can also lead to a local improvement, allowing for later open surgery.

The most commonly practiced combination therapy thus consists of a sequentially performed minimally invasive therapy, which is then followed by an open resection. The therapy course must therefore be planned from the beginning, coordinated in an interdisciplinary team with experience in various methods and explained to the patient.